This paper presents an assessment of the Soviet-Warsaw Pact forces in the Central Region (i.e., German Democratic Republic and Czechoslovakia) facing the NATO forces. Emphasis is on the improvements made in Soviet ground and air forces during the past ten years. The discussion is qualitative and quantitative, and includes changes in organization, with the emphasis being on trends. As appropriate, comparisons are given between forces of the Soviet Union and the United States, and of Warsaw Pact and NATO forces in the Central Front area. Although there has been a limited change in the number of Soviet divisions assigned to the Central Region, there has been a significant increase in non- divisional troops. Similarly, there have been major qualitative improvements in Soviet division equipment and weapons and in the additional non-divisional units that are not readily apparent in most comparative efforts. This assessment has provided a vehicle for focusing attention on improvements in NATO organization and operations, and on those existing and future technologies that can make a significant contribution to improving the combat potential of U.S. and NATO forces on the Central Front.